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Author (up) Chung, W.C.J.; Auger, A.P. url  doi
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  Title Gender differences in neurodevelopment and epigenetics Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal Pflugers Arch  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visuospatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand thepathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every level of organization-morphological, neurochemical, and functional-and has been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss howthe gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences and School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA, wchung@kent.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-6768 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23503727 Approved no  
  Call Number @ @ Serial 38516  
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